Pamplona sits in the middle of the map of Navarre. It is located on a plateau 449 metres above sea level. It covers 23.55 square kilometres.
Pamplona”s climate reflects a transition from a Mediterranean to an Atlantic climate. It is temperate-cold, full of contrast and varies from year to year. In general, it is pleasant, although the thermometer can rise above 35 degrees centigrade in July and August, and fall beneath 0 in January.
Surrounded by mountains, the plain of the basin of Pamplona has always favoured human settlement. Stone tools have been found on the terraces of the River Arga dating from some 75,000 years ago. In approximately the first millennium BC, there already existed a Vascon settlement beneath the modern-day city. This settlement gave rise to the name Iruña, Basque for “the city”. The Roman General Gnaeus Pompey Magnus arrived in 75 BC and founded a Roman-model city. He gave it its name, Pompaelo, and enhanced its function as a strategic link between the peninsula and Europe.